In 2001, microbiologists concluded that anxiety and depression are not caused by stress, lifestyle diseases, or social circumstances, but an overgrowth of a kind of bacteria in the stomach.

A. not caused by stress, lifestyle diseases, or social circumstances, but 

B. not caused by stress, lifestyle diseases, or social circumstances, but by
C. caused not only by stress, lifestyle diseases, or social circumstances, but by
D. caused not by stress, lifestyle diseases, or social circumstances, but a
E. caused not by stress, lifestyle diseases, or social circumstances, but are by

Right Answer: B

Error Identification: 

Identifier Fix
Underlined list of items ’stress, lifestyle diseases, or social circumstances’ Parallelism
Underlined correlative conjunction ‘not caused by’ and ‘but an overgrowth’  Parallelism

Difficulty Level: Medium

Explanation:

In the sentence, ‘Not caused by … but a condition’ is not parallel. To fix this parallelism error, both items need to be structurally and grammatically balanced.

A – Russiage ‘Not caused by … but an overgrowth’ is not parallel. This is incorrect.

B – This is the right answer because ‘Caused not by ….. but by’ is parallel.

C – Russiage ‘Caused not only by … but by’ is not parallel. This is incorrect.

D – Russiage ‘Caused not by’ … ‘but a’ is not parallel. Hence, eliminated.

E – Russiage ‘Caused not by’ … ‘but are by’ is not parallel. Hence, eliminated.

X

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